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2007 წ

dezinfeqcia: problemebi da gadawyvetilebebi.

antimikrobuli saSualebebis didi raodenobiT ukontrolo gavrcelebam  Camoayaliba ori negatiuri tendecia romelsac erTi safuZveli gaaCnia. Ppaqtikulad yvela sadizinfeqcio xsnari warmodgenilia qimiurad stabiluri nivTierebebiT, romlebic erTnairad saSiSia sicocxlisaTvis.
Aadamianisgan gansxvavebiT mikroorganizmebi swrafad eCvevian stabilur qimiur nivTierebebs, radgan maT gaaCniaT rogorc adaptaciis, aseve gamravlebis swrafi unari.
Aantimikrobul saSualebaSi stabiluri, aqtiurad moqmedi nivTierebani (amn),  miuxedavaT  maTi mravalsaxeobisa, ganekuTvnebian SenaerTTa sul ramodenime klass. (spirtebi, aldehidebi, oTxfuZovani amoniumis SenaerTebi an fenolebi). Ffaqtiurad antimikrobuli preparatebis es mravalsaxeoba stabiluri qimiuri nivTierebebis  mcire raodenobaTa kombinaciaa. aseTi preparatebis funqcionalur efeqturobas  misi mwarmoeblebi zrdian satabiluri nivTierebebis axali proporciebis momatebiT. es kargad aisaxeba rogorc adamianebSi aseve mikroorganizmebSi. am principiT Seqmnili yvela preparati kargavs Tavis funqcionalur moqmdebas mikroorganizmSi gacilebiT ufro swrafad, vidre adamianis organizmSi. Sedegad ki izrdeba mikroorganizmebis  Stamebis raodenoba, romlebic mdgradi arian qimiuri SenaerTebis mimarT. Aantimikrobuli preparatebis gegmiuri Secvla mTlianad ver Wris problemas, radgan rCeba  mikroorganizmebis  axali Stamis Seqmnis pirobebi. isini(axali Stamebi), erTnairad mdgradia rogorc Zveli, ise axali antimikrobuli preparatebis mimarT.
xSirad dezinfeqtantebis Secvla xdeba ara gegmiurad, aramed dainteresebuli pirebis lobirebis Sedegad. Ees viTareba kidev ufro arTulebs epidemiis sawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebis gatarebas.
dRmde ar aris SemuSavebuli madezinficirebeli saSualebebis toqsikuri maCveneblebis Sefasebis meTodologiuri midgoma,  ar aris Seswavlili mravalkomponentiani qimiuri sistemebis metabolizmi da dezinfeqtanebis mravalmxrivi paTogenetikuri moqmedeba cocxali organizmebis mimarT.
antimikrobuli preparatebis gamoyenebis meTodur miTiTebaSi miTiTebulia sasunTqi da Sinagani organoebis toqsikurobis, alergiulobis, adgilobrivi gamaRizianebeli moqmedebis Sesaxeb maCveneblebi.MTumca gaTvaliswinebuli  unda iqnas agreTve maTi mutagenuri, emriotoqsikuri, teratogenuli, onkogenuri, organotropuli Tvisebebi, dismikrobioturi moqmedeba, kumulaciis da migraciis unari bunebaSi. A
cxadia, rom ar arsebobs antimikrobuli preparatebis toqsikurobis Semajamebeli Sefaseba, ganxiluli ar aris maTi organizmSi moxvedris gzebi, rogorc dezinfeqciis Catarebis, ise garemoSi dagrovebis SemTxvevaSi. cxadia, amJamad arsebuli riskis Sefasebis sistema ama Tu im preparatebis gamoyenebisas sruliad aradamakmayofilebelia.
sadezinfeqcio saSualebaTa Semadgenlobis qimiuri analizi gvaCvenebs, rom maT umravlesobaSi Sedian organizmisaTvis ucxo nivTierebani e.w.qsenobiotikebi, adamianis da cxovelis organizmisTvis SeuTavsebeli,negatiuri nivTierabani. marTlac yvela mediko-biologiuri da ekologiuri aspeqtis Sesaswavlad jer kidev bevri dro da energia aris saWiro.
ismis kiTxva, arsebobs Tu ara antimikrobuli saSualebani, romlebic uvnebelia adamianisaTvis da amave dros ar aZleven mikroorganizmebs adaptaciuri reaqciebis gamomuSavebis saSualebas.
Ddiax, medicinis istoriidan kargad aris cnobili aratoqsikuri antimikrobuli saSualebani, romelTa mimarT mikroorganizmebs adaptaciis unari ara aqvT. Ees aris ali, mzis sinaTlis ultraiisferi nawili, eleqtronuli muxtis mqone ionizirebuli plazma anu is substanciebi, romlebic an TiTon arian metastabilurni, an mikroorganizmis ujredSi iwvveven  metastabilur mdgomareobas. Aam SemTxvevaSi organizmis metastabiluri mdgomareoba miiRweva Seuqcevadi denaturaciiT da dezintegraciiT. TviT metastabiluri faqtori ki wyvets arsebobas. magaliTad, alis plazma metastabiluri substanciaa  romelsac ar gaaCnia qimiuri sadezinfeqcio xsnarebis msgavsad toqsikuri  Sedegebi da ar aZlevs mikroorganizmebs rezistentobis gamomuSavebis saSualebas. A  alisgan gansxvavebiT mudmivad maRal temperaturas ar gaaCnia metastabiluri zemoqmedeba. cnobilia  mikroorganizmTa jgufi, romelic  400 graduss temperaturasa da aTasobiT at.wnevaze viTardeba zRvis fskeridan wyalqveSa vulkanuri amofrqvevis dros. walbadis zeJangi,romelic ekologiurad sufTa antiseptikia, Tanamedrove sasterlizacio sistemebSi metastabilur mdgomareobaSi plazmis saxiT gamoiyeneba. Aam meTodiT miRebuli plazmis antimikrobuli moqmedeba mravaljeradad Zlierdeba, amave dros mcirdeba koroziuli aqtiuroba. Tumca metastabiluri fizikuri zemoqmedebaMmikroorganizmebTan brZolaSi mTel rig pirobebSi izRudeba.
fizikuri metastabiluri substanciebis yvelaze uaxloesi “civi” analogiaa eleqtroqimiurad aqtivirebuli anoliti ank, romelic  gamomuSavdeba natriumis qloridis wyalxsnaridan. AerT-erTi ZiriTadi ank-anolitis fiziko-qimiuri gansxvaveba tradiciuli natriumis hipoqloridis wyalxsnarisagan mdgomareobs imaSi, rom ank-anilitSi xuTi dRe da kidev meti Tanaarseboben SenaerTebi, romlebic Cveulebriv wyalxsnarSi ramodenime wuTSi urTierTneitraldebian. aseT SenaerTebs ganekuTvneba ozoni da aqtiuri qloris SenaerTebi-qlorovani mJava, non-gipoqloridi, qloris dioqsidi.
eleqtroqimiurad aqtivirebuli anolitebis mkvlevarebi(n.m.ramkova; m.g. Sandala; i.m. abramova; v.m. melkinova; n.v. loktionova; da sxv.) adareben ra anolits tradiciul qimiur sadezinfeqcio saSualebebs, maT Soris uaxloves analogs -nartiumis hpoqloritis wyalxsnars-aRniSnaven MmaT eqstremalurad maRal antibaqterialur, virulicidur da fungicidur aqtiurobas moqmed nivTierebaTa mcire koncentraciis drosac. 5 wliani dakvirvebebi saqarTveloSi da 15 wliani dakvirvebebi ruseTis da sxva  qveynebis samkurnalo dawesebulebebSi adastureben  mikroorganizmebis rezistenturobis gamoricxvas eleqtroaqtivirebuli wylis gamoyenebis dros.
Ggamokvlevebma saxvadasxva qveyanaSi daadastura,rom ank anolits ar gaaCnia mutagenuri, onkogenuri, embriotoqsiuri, imunotoqsiuri Tvisebebi da adgilobrivi gamaRizianebeli moqmedeba. Aank-anoliti kargad SeeTavseba adamianis da cxovelis qsovilebs, aratoqsikuria aerozoluri gafrqvevisas. Aank-anolitis aqtiurad moqmedi nivTierebani metastabiluria, amitom igi ar grovdeba garemoSi da ar qmnis toqsiur fons, rac uzrunvelyofs mis ekologiur usafrTxoebas da gamoricxavs mikrofloris miCvevas degradaciis produqtebisadmi. (maTi uqonlobis gamo ganicdian srul degradacias).
DdRevandel dRes SeiZleba iTqvas, rom neitraluri anoliti mTlianad Seesabameba Tanamedrove sadezinfeqcio saSualebaTa xarisxs.
antimikrobul saSualebas unda gaaCndes antimikrobuli moqmedebis farTo speqtri anu mokle droSi efeqturad unda spobdes baqteriebs, mikrobaqteriebs, mikrobebs, virusebs, sokoebs, miuxedavad misi gamoyenebis sixSiris da xangZlivobisa. Aantimikrobuli saSualebebi usafrTxo unda iyos adamianisa da cxovelisadmi,rogorc misi damzadebisa da gamoyenebis dros,aseve gamoyenebis Sewyvetisas, organizmSi moxvedrisas, gare sivrceSi destruqciuli cvlilebis dros, kumulaciis process rogorc organizmSi ise gare samyaroSi unda mohyvebodes biodegradacia. aRniSnuli moTxovna daculia Tu sadezinfeqcio saSualebebi an misi bunebrivi da xelovnuri degradaciis produqtebi ar Seicaven stabilur qsenobiotikebs, gare samyaros potenciur dambinZureblebs.A
antimikrobul  saSualebas unda gaaCndes moqmedebis universaluroba, anu ara marto antimikrobuli  aramed mrecxavi Tvisebebi, minimaluri damazianebeli da koroziuli aqtiurobiT sxva da sxva masalebis mimarT. eleqtro qimiurad aqtivirebuli anoliti-ank warmoadgens ufero, gamWvirvale siTxes. (6.0-7.5) neitraluri niSvnelobiT da gaxsnili nivTierebis saerTo SemcvelobiT  1.0-5.0 gr/l da moqmedi nivTierebis saerTo SemcvelobiT 200-500 mg/l). xsnars aqvs qloris susti suni, igi ganekuTvneba naklebad  saSiSi nivTierebebis me-4 klass. A
ank-anolits gaaCnia moqmedebis farTo speqtri. igi efeqturad spobs baqteriebs, mikrobaqteriebs, virusebs, sokoebs da sporebs, ar grovdeba forovan masalebSi, ar abinZurebs gare samyaros daSlis produqtebiT. A    ank-anoliti universaluri antimikrobuli saSualebaa, igi ar aZlevs mikroorganizmebs rezestenturobis gamomuSavebis saSualebas da amitom gamoyenebadia erTi da igive obieqtis dasamuSaveblad ganusazRvrelad didi xaniT (Secvlis gareSe). inarCunebs mrecxavi, madezinfiqcirebeli da masterlizirebeli xsnaris Tvisebebs miRebidan 5-10 dRes, inaxeba daxurul plastmasis an minis taraSi pirdapiri mziis sxvebisgan daculi, oTaxis temperaturaze.
sadezinfeqcio RonisZiebebi  xorcieldeba  gawmendis, CayursviT, danamvis an aerozoluri meTodiT.
ank-anoliti gamoiyeneba individualuri damcavi xelsawyoebis gareSe ar tovebs laqebs da ar moiTxovs damuSavebis Semdgom gawmendas. Mmisi aqtiurad moqmedi nivTierebani metastabiluri Semcvelobis arian, gamoyenebis Semdeg ganicdian degradacias sawyis nivTierebamde, sustad mineralizirebul wylamde, romelic ar moiTxovs Semdeg utilizacias da ar grovdeba gare samyaroSi. ank-anolitis daniSnulebaa:

  • avejis, sanitarul-teqnikuri danadgarebis, WurWelis, TeTreulis, zedapirebis dezinfeqcia SenobebSi. avadmyofTa mosavleli sagnebis, samedicino nakeTobanis,myari da moqnili endoskopebis, stomatologiuri instrumentebis dezinfeqciisTvis baqteriuli infeqciebisas (tuberkuliozis CaTvliT), sokovani infeqciebisas (kandidozi, dermofitozi) da virusuli infeqciebisas (hepatitebis CaTvliT) etiologiur da infeqciur kerebSi, samkurnalo-profilaqtikur dawesebulebebSi (klinikuri, diagnostikuri da baqteriologiuri laboratoriebis CaTvliT), sabavSvo dawesebulebebSi mimdinare, daskvniTi da profilaqtikuri dezinfeqciis Catarebisas.

 dezinfeqciisaTvis da winasasterilizacio gawmendisaTvis samkurnalo dawesebulebebSi.

  • avejis, WurWlis, TeTreulis, avadmyofTa mosavleli nivTebis, saTamaSoebis, sanitarul-teqnikuri danadgarebis, gasawmendi masalebis dezinfeqciisaTvis gansakuTrebulad saSiSi infeqciebis kerebSi ( Savi Wiri, qolera ).

  • zedapirebis dezinfeqciisaTvis samkurnalo da sabavSvo dawesebulebebSi generaluri dasufTavebis dros.

  • sazogadoebrivi kvebis da komunaluri obieqtebis  dezinfeqciisaTvis.

  • sanitaruli transportis dezinfeqciisaTvis, maT Soris Sefrqvevis meTodis gamoyenebiT.

  • samedicino daniSnulebis minis, rezinis, plastmasis, liTonis nivTebis dezinfeqciisaTvis, winasasterilizacio gawmendisaTvis da sterilizaciisaTvis samkurnalo dawesebulebebSi.

  • sasmeli  wylis  dezinfeqciisaTvis wylis mosamzadebel sadgurebSi

  • gamdinare wylebisa da sacurao baseinebis wylebis dezinfeqciisaTvis

  • danadgarebis sarecxi da sadezinfeqcio Senobebis, abanoebis, saunebis, kosmetikuri kabinetebis, sanatoriumebis, dasasvenebeli saxlebis, sastumroebis, maRaziebis, aeroportebis, sazRvao, samdinareo da sarkinigzo sadgurebis saerTo dezineqciisaTvis. rkinigzis, saavtomobilo, saaviacio, sazRvao da samdinareo transportis, samgzavro da satvirTo danadgarebis  sadezinfeqcio damuSavebisaTvis.

 

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